International Deafness Awareness Week

Imagine a world of total silence.We need to realize that our ears and hearing are equally important to us as much as vision.

If we don’t hear we are face the following problems

  • We cannot communicate with each other.
  • We cannot learn speech or languages.
  • We are exposed to danger since we cannot hear alarms, approaching vehicles, etc.
  • We are not able to enjoy music or watch movies.

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International Week of the Deaf (IWDeaf)

is an initiative of the WFD and was first launched in 1958 in Rome, Italy. It is celebrated annually by the global Deaf Community on the last full week of September to commemorate the same month the first World Congress of the WFD was held. IWDeaf is celebrated through various activities by respective Deaf Communities worldwide. These activities call for participation and involvement of various stakeholders including families, peers, governmental bodies, professional sign language interpreters, and DPOs.

23 rd September is known as World Sign Language day.

The last Sunday of September is the Day of the Deaf.

How can one detect hearing loss?

Loss of hearing can affect you at any age. It can happen from birth, in young children, adults and the elderly. Proper awareness can help you detect this problem and get remedies.

What are the risks for hearing loss in small children?

  • Marriages among close relatives. This increases the risk of genetic disorders.
  • If either of the parents or a sibling is not hearing, there is a big chance of the child being deaf.
  • Viral infections, mumps, measles, rubella, chickenpox, meningitis, etc. All these illness have a high risk of the virus affecting the nerves of hearing and the middle ear. Get your child properly vaccinated!
  • Frequent colds, ear discharge in children. For these problems you should check with your doctor. Sometimes the child could require medication or a surgery which can solve the problem.
  • Falls or injuries to the head and ears
  • Loud noises

Child specialist and ENT doctors work together for this. Psychiatric assessment of the child is needed to know if the child really can hear, whether there is a attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,(ADHD), or any other reason the child is not paying attention

The earlier, the better!

Hearing loss and ear discharge in small children should be treated as early as possible. Children learn languages from after 1 year of age, it is this period that proper remedial measures should be started and not later. Once this age is passed the hearing aid or cochlear implant would be of no use as the child would hear sounds, but not understand the meaning of them.

Babies and small children don’t speak, they can’t tell what is wrong with them. How do we find out that they have a hearing problem?

Special charts are available like the one below.

 

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The parents should be alert and if any time a hearing disorder is detected, they should immediately consult with their child specialist.

How is hearing checked for small children?

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In some countries other than India, as a routine Neonatal Echo screening is done. This is a portable hand held device, and even nursing and technical staff can use it to. We recommend that as many as possible newborns get this test done, for early prevention. If at any chance hearing loss is suspected, the test is repeated after 6 months, and if it is still showing problems, the Brain Stem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA) test is recommended.

BERA TEST

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This test is a Highly accurate computerised way of detecting hearing loss in children.

In this test signals are sent to the inner ear and the response is measured in the brain with special leads similar to an ECG. It is safe and non invasive and an OPD procedure.However, it takes some time as the child is required to sleep during the test. Some children require to be sedated.

How can we treat deafness in small children?

Deafness is treatable if taken care at the proper time. For small children it requires teamwork between the doctors, therapists and the parents of the child

  • If the child is found to be hearing to a certain extent, proper hearing aids work well.
  • Parents should talk to their child constantly. Children learn by repeating.
  • If the child has a stronger issue, a Cochlear implant will definitely help. Due to improved care and proper anesthetic techniques, cochlear implant surgery can be done at an earlier age.

What are Cochlear Implants?

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A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device which can replace the function of the damaged inner ear.

A hearing aid makes you hear better by making sounds louder, but a cochlear implant bypasses the damaged or defective structures of the ear and transmits signals directly to the brain.

 

Insect allergies and Mosquito Control

Summer holidays were on. Lots of flowers were in bloom, and bees were buzzing around. Dhara, 8 years old, was playing in the garden with her friends.  All of them were wearing brightly colored frocks. Suddenly Dhara started screaming in pain and crying. Her mother brought her inside. On examination she had found to have a bee sting. This was not the first time that it had happened. She started having itching and hives, and swelling at the site of the sting. Her parents immediately rushed her to the hospital, and treatment was started. She had to stay for a day in the hospital and was fine.

Insects stings of  bees, wasps, fire ants, etc can give a severe allergic reactions

 

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When you’re stung for the first time, there may not be a severe reaction.  Your immune system gets sensitized, so the next time round, chances are get a more severe reaction than the first. This reaction could be fatal too so it’s advisable that you attend your emergency department immediately.

What insects to look out for?

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  •   Yellow jackets are black with yellow markings, found in various climates. Their nests are usually located underground, but sometimes found in the walls of buildings, cracks in masonry or in woodpiles.•    Honeybees have round, fuzzy bodies with dark brown and yellow markings. They can be found in honeycombs in trees, old tires or other partially protected sites.

    •    Paper wasps are slender with black, brown, red and yellow markings. They live in a circular comb under eaves, behind shutters or in shrubs and woodpiles.

    •    Hornets are black or brown with white, orange or yellow markings. Their nests are gray or brown and are usually found in trees.

    •    Fire ants are reddish-brown ants living in large mounds, mostly in warmer climates. They attack with little warning, inserting highly concentrated toxins that cause burning and pain.

What symptoms to look out for?

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There will be pain, swelling and redness at the site of the insect bite. This is normal and with anti allergic tablets can be controlled.

You should be concerned if the following symptoms develop

  • Swelling of the face, throat or tongue
    •    Difficulty breathing
    •    Dizziness
    •    Stomach cramps
    •    Nausea or diarrhea
    •    Itchiness and hives over large areas of the body

This could be a part of a fatal reaction called Anaphylaxis and immediate medical attention is required.

A single insect sting, or attack by a swarm of bees can cause a severe reaction like fever, nausea, fainting, seizures, shock and even death.

A serum sickness type of reaction, fever, rashes, joint pain, etc can be seen too. It might take a few days even.

Preventive measures for insect stings:

Insects sting only when they are injured or feel that they are attacked.

  • Destroy any beehives or wasp nests near to you. You may require good pest control services.
  • If you spot stinging insects, remain calm and quiet, and slowly move away.
  • Avoid brightly colored clothes and perfume. The insects could be attracted to you, thinking that you are a flower.
  • Bees get attracted to sweet things. Keep soft drinks and sodas covered. Food should be covered to protect from insects.
  • Wear closed shoes to avoid stepping on anything.
  • Avoid loose- fitting clothes where insects can crawl between the skin and clothing.

https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/allergies/stinging-insect-allergy

Mosquito bites

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Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest insects.

Their bites not only cause itching, but they spread diseases such as malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow fever, Zika Virus, filariasis and many other deadly diseases.

They are common in tropical countries.

Mosquitoes are commonly seen during dusk and early morning. They like dark places and hide in corners.

Outdoors in gardens and where there is excess vegetation mosquitoes are fairly common. They bite children playing in parks, etc.

How to avoid mosquitoes:

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First and foremost, they should not be allowed to breed.

  • Mosquitoes lay eggs in water. Their larvae hatch and breed in water. To stop them from breeding, unnecessary pooling , stagnation of water should be prevented.
  • Fish tanks should be cleaned periodically, and covered.
  • water collects in old garbage, tyres, etc. That should not be allowed
  • Puddles and potholes are to be filled in. Fountains and fish ponds should be drained if not in use.
  • Junk and clutter should be eliminated in the house. Mosquitoes tend to hide in corners, below tables, behind curtains,etc

How to avoid mosquito bites:

  • Mosquitoes get attracted to dark clothing, so wear light colored clothes.
  • The room should be bright. Bed-sheets and curtains should be light colored
  • Use of natural mosquito repellent cream.
  • Mosquito repellent sprays and plug in devices can prevent mosquitoes entering a room, but the fumes can cause allergies. Use them with discretion, such as during evening. after spraying open the doors and windows and turn on the fan. Allow the fumes to disperse.
  • Early morning and late evening keep the doors and windows closed.

USE A MOSQUITO NET WHILE SLEEPING

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Immunotherapy

Venom immunotherapy for honey bees, wasps and fire ants has found to have a good result.

Should Fluffy be given a new home? how to deal with pet allergies.

Pets. They’re part of our family.  Getting rid of a pet is unthinkable.

The hygiene hypothesis:

If children play with animals at a younger age, they become more resistant to developing allergies as they grow up. Especially kids growing up on a farm.

Cats: It’s well known that the primary allergen, Fel D1 is the main culprit for allergy to cats. Cat saliva causes allergy, cats constantly lick themselves, and their saliva sticks to their fur.

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For minimizing allergy to pets,

  • Pet hairs should be reduced. proper cleaning and use of vacuum cleaners.
  • Wash the pets regularly.
  •  Pets should not be allowed to sleep on the bed
  • Avoid handling the pet. Wash your hands if you do.
  • High efficiciency particulate (HEPA) filters help in reducing allergen levels over a period of time. Especially in the bedroom.

Pet allergies can develop over time. You may not be allergic to your dog but in a period of 2 years there’s a good chance that you can get allergic to it.

Other animals that can cause allergy

Horses, cattle, parrots, hamsters, etc.

Rats:

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Rats are everywhere, in drains,

Domestic pets, rat urine and faeces have allergenic material.

  • Proper pest control,
  • avoid open food lying around,
  • proper hygiene
  •  blocking of points of entry to rats should be done.
  • store garbage in closed containers. Proper garbage disposal

In labs and such areas, use gloves while handling

Pigeons

Feathers and pigeon droppings.

More than causing dirt, fungus grows on pigeon droppings which adds to the allergy.

How to avoid pigeons.

  • Install pigeon netting in galleries especially if you are staying in high rise buildings.
  • Pigeons lay eggs on AC units. Put pieces of glass or barbed wire so that they don’t sit and roost over there.
  • Don’t encourage feeding of pigeons. Pigeons are fed grains, etc. on basis of religious purposes. But these pigeons are responsible for allergy/asthma and spread of disease

https://acaai.org/allergies/types/pet-allergy

Fungal Allergies? How common are they?

Fungus. A lot of people claim to have fungal infections and rashes, but what exactly is a fungal allergy?

What is a fungus?

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Fungus are molds that grow on stale food, in the walls in case of pipe leakage, seepage of damp, etc.

Fungal spores are microparticles of fungus, which float in the air and when inhaled or in contact with the skin can cause allergies.

Where do you find fungus?

Fungus is found outdoors, in fields, where there is damp and moisture, decaying plants and animals.

It’s fairly common in the house.

It is found at home in

  • Bathroom walls-causing blackish or greenish slimy mold
  • walls of house where seepage in monsoon or pipe leakage is present
  • AC vents especially the window AC unit.
  • In the fridge if not properly cleaned

How to prevent fungal allergies?

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Since it’s an environmental allergen, proper environment control is needed.Fungi don’t grow easily in dry weather.

  • A dehumidifier will help, especially for hospitals, operation theaters, places where fungal growth should be discouraged.
  • Wherever damp is present, waterproofing should be done.  Rainwater leakage, pipe leakage should be dealt with.
  • Bathroom should be cleaned with bleach regularly to prevent mold formation. Since bleach itself is a strong irritant and can cause sneezing, the patient is advised not to do it on their own.
  • Stale food should not be kept for long and thrown away immediately. It should not be consumed since it contains toxins.
  • fridge should be cleaned regularly.
  • AC units should be serviced regularly.
  • Clothes in the Cupboard should be aired.

House dust? What is house dust exactly?

Nowdays people claim to have dust allergy.   What does this mean?

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House dust is considered to be a major factor in this case.

What is house dust? The dust in our house. It’s everywhere! in the beds, mattresses, pillows, carpets, curtains, sofa covers, soft toys,and practically every furniture.

Daily dust settles everywhere. on the carpets, surfaces, etc.

It’s a mixture of dead skin, house dust mites, pollen,fungus, fabric fibres, hair and animal fur, pieces of plastic. bits of dead insects like cockroaches. garden and outside dirt.

 

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Infants and small children, invalids, people who spend a lot of time indoors have a lot of exposure of dust.

This dust can soak up a lot of cosmetics and chemicals. organic pollutants, metals and hormonal disruptors. phenol preservatives,

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Some chemicals like flame retardant ar  directly transferred  to dirt.

Deodorants, fragrance, mosquito repellants, cigarrete smoke, agarbattis, all these are irritants found in the home. They make allergies worse.

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Tips for prevention of Dust Allergies.

The more the furnishings, the more the dust. So it’s a good idea to minimise the furniture.

Dusting and shaking will raise the dust in the house, so vacuuming is always a good idea.

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Vacuuming of mattresses and pillows is also recommended.

Allergy-proof covers. 

They are easily available online, and in pharmacy and  furniture stores. They are made of special fibre to prevent the dust from mattresses from coming out. They can be used on mattresses and pillows, over which the bedsheet and pillow covers can be put.

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While going out, wear protective masks, and while doing cleaning at home.

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You can use a dehumidifier or a HEPA filter at home if dust allergies are too severe.

NEXT: Importance of Fungal allergens.

What are the plants that cause pollen allergies in India?

There are lots of plants in India. Not all of them cause allergies.

Various labs offer blood tests for allergies but they include the European panel for allergies which is not applicable to pollen allergies in India.

Out of the various blood tests offered, rest are obsolete. RAST ,and total IgE tests are not reliable. The skin prick test is highly accurate for allergy testing. Standardised allergens are available in India which have been used for the allergy skin prick test.

The plants which cause allergies vary from place to place. i.e. coconut tree pollen is more prevalent at the coastal regions , while open grassland will have more exposure to weeds and pollen. Towards North India you will be exposed to another set of plants, and towards Kashmir ,etc you can get deciduous trees, even pine trees.

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Like  I mentioned, all trees do not cause allergies. Trees which have insect borne pollen have heavier pollen. This pollen does not fly easier for long distances and so is less allergenic.

It is best to consult your local botanist to know about local trees and shrubs and grasses and the time of pollination for them.

From my experience I will be stating some grasses and plants and trees which can cause allergy in India.

Parthenium Hysterophorus or congress grass. 

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It’s a highly invasive weed found in America, Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific islands. It’s endemic to America. It found it’s way to these places through low quality wheat PL 480 wheat imported in 1950.  from America. Seeds of parthenium were contaminating the wheat. It grows on open grassland, vacant plots, etc. It’s a poisonous plant as contact with it’s leaves and parts can cause itching.

It’s pollen is perennial that it it’s found throughout the year. Peak seasons are in June, July.

synonyms: congress grass, gajar ghass, etc

It’s not to be confused with common ragweed Ambrosia Artemisifolia

Mesquite or Prosopis Juliflora 

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A very common allergen present throughout the year. Peak months from April onwards to December. Common in desert areas like Rajasthan, open plots.

This is an invasive species introduced to open grasslands due to excessive grazing.

Durva, Doob grass, Bermuda grass, Cynodon Dactylon

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It’s a common allergen, and is used in Lord Ganesha’s Puja. It’s commonly grown in sports fields along with other grasses.

Throughout the year with peak seasons from May to October

Coconut tree or Cocos Nucifera

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Common in coastal regions. pollen is present throughout the year.

Raintree or Samanea  or Albizia Saman

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You will recognise this tree in most major cities, especially on the sides of the road and railway tracks.

Most prominent from April to July

Ricinus Communis castor oil

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Highly allergenic, present throughout the year.

Papaya tree or Carica Papaya

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Well known as following the dengue fever outbreaks, Papaya leaves were in great demand. It’s pollen is present throughout the year.

Amaranthus or Chauli, Chenopodium or Bathua

 

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Pollen of these plants cause allergies. However, they can be eaten.

Xanthium and Agreratum

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found on a trek in the jungle

Lots of other plants are there. Timothy grass is not much of a problem in India, as Hazel, Oak, Birch ,etc. These pollens tested for in Lab blood tests are irrelevant for allergies in India

Mangifera Indica or Mango tree, Neem tree or Azadirachta Indica

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Common from March till May

Eucalyptus or Nilgiri.

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Common throughout the year.

Next…House dust

Am I allergic to pollen in the City?

When you’re out in the garden for your morning walk, you sneeze a lot, your eyes are watering, your nose is running. this happens more in the summer months and especially in warm climates… these are signs of hay fever or pollen allergy. We will come to hay fever, but first……

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What is pollen?

This question is a bit surprising, but a lot of my patients are not aware what pollen is

The yellow dust found in flowers is known as pollen. It’s the form of reproduction of plants and so travels from plant to plant. This could be through the air or stuck to the body of insects. This is known as pollination.

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Plants with bigger colorful flowers are specially designed to attract insects. They have larger and heavier pollen. This pollen travels from plant to plant stuck to the body of insects and have less chance of causing allergies.

On the other hand, plants like grasses, etc have smaller or unattractive flowers. Their pollen travels from plant to plant via the wind, and can be blown for distances upto more than 100 km.

What is hay fever? 

In the warm summer months, especially where there are open grasslands, where dried grass or hay is released, lots of pollen is released in the air. This pollen travels long distances and reaches your home and place and makes you sneeze.

Pollen allergies can cause itching of eyes, rashes and swelling all over the body too.

Pollen allergies and global warming: 

Pollen allergies are becoming more and more common as the weather gets warmer. In the weather more plants are stimulated to pollinate, and more and more pollen is released in the air, giving exposure to more and more people.

Am I allergic to pollen in the Cities?

Yes

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Contrary to proper belief, plants and greenery are all around you in the city. Big trees, all around. Parks, lawn grass. Durva grass offered to Lord Ganesha. Outskirts of cities and open fields, lots of weeds and shrubs growing wild, Vacant lots. All this pollen blows into your house and causes allergies.

School children playing games on grassland and in gardens are prone to allergies.

How to prevent pollen allergies?

pollen is released early morning and late evening. Avoid going for walks at that time. Wear full sleeves and a mask. On going home take a shower and put all the clothes for washing.

Environmental pollutants, petrol diesel fumes, cigarette smoke, etc, causes more irritation and make pollen allergies worse.

Nowadays, various ornamental plants are encouraged to be planted. These plants have pollen which is not allergenic.

Immunotherapy helps a lot for pollen allergies!

I’ve discussed about immunotherapy in the previous blog. Immunotherapy drops and tablets are available for pollen allergies. It is a safe, natural way of overcoming your allergies and no side effects.

NEXT: Some common plants in India responsible for pollen allergy

Dust mites….tiny but troublesome!

Sheela was worried. Her 8 year old Rohan was not doing well at school. He constantly was sneezing, with a runny and stuffy nose. He used to miss school and games, because he was too unwell to attend. He used to get worse whenever she was cleaning the house and in damp weather. He was their only child and he slept with  his mom and dad in the same room. they had the AC on every night. He was worse since they shifted to their new town, which was near the sea. The weather was warm and humid, and mold used to form in the bathroom. After the rains the clothes in the cupboard had a musty smell too. She consulted with her paediatrician, who decided that an allergy test had to be done for him. The doctor asked him a few questions after which he was tested for a selected few allergens, and was found to have strong dust mite allergy. The doctor told Sheela how to take care of things at home, and he was given immunotherapy. After a few months Rohan started feeling better, and his grades started improving at school.

What was bothering Rohan?

the culprit was the house dust mite.

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What are dust mites?

Thanks to awareness in general, and on the internet, a lot of you are aware of the house dust mite. But many of you may not know what they are.

House dust mites are tiny insects of the mite family. They are small, whitish insects barely visible to the naked eye. being 0.5 mm in length.They are globular in shape, with hair on their legs and body. They are not to be confused with bed bugs, as they do not bite. They are the major cause of allergy in most of the continents, including Europe, North America, Asia and Australia.

The common species of dust mites in Europe and America are Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and D farinae. In hot tropical regions, Blomia Tropicalis is a major dust mite causing allergy.

Where can they be found?

They are commonly found in mattresses, pillows, bed sheets, blankets, pillow covers, carpets, curtains, upholstery, soft toys, etc. Even in the clothes cupboard, Air conditioning, on your furry pets, etc.

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How do they cause allergies, if they don’t bite?

Dermato=skin, Phagoides=to eat. The name itself suggests that they eat skin. That means they are mini dead-skin eating monsters. The image below shows it all.

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How to manage dust mite allergy?

Dust mites like a warm and humid climate. They get destroyed by extreme heat and extreme cold.

If you are allergic to something the first thing you have to do is avoid it.

Dust mites are a little difficult to avoid. Precautions start at home itself. Get rid of all the extra carpets, soft furnishings. Or else you will have a regular chore of vacuuming. Soft toys have to be washed with hot water or frozen. Bed-sheets, blankets, pillow covers, etc should be washed with hot water and dried in the sun. Mattresses and pillows have to be aired in the dry sun and vacuumed properly.

You may require a dehumidifier or a HEPA  filter too, if symptoms are extreme.

Allergy proof covers

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They are made of fine weave fabric. They stop micro particles like dust mite pellets, etc from passing through. They can be washed once in a few months. They are encasing of mattresses and pillows, on which you can spread your bed-sheets and pillow covers.

Medication 

You must consult your doctor if you have troublesome symptoms. You will be prescribed appropriate medication. Some tablets and topical sprays have to be taken long term to have a good effect.

Immunotherapy:

Medicines help to control the symptoms. Once you stop the medication the symptoms will return. In that case immunotherapy helps, especially for dust mite allergies.

What is Immunotherapy?

In immunotherapy the main allergen extract is given in gradually increasing doses. This makes the body resistant to the allergen, and reduces the reaction to exposure and symptoms of allergy.

It is a natural extract. There’s no allopathic, homeopathic, steroids or sedatives involved. i.e.NO DRUGS are involved.

How is it given?

It can be given in injection form or as sublingual form. that is drops are given below the tongue.

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The injections have to be given in the proper hospital setting, with monitoring and observation for half an hour before letting the patient go home. The oral drops are safe, and once the patient is instructed on how to take the drops, they can take it at home safely.

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How much time does it take for immunotherapy to be effective?

This varies for different people. It takes a few months, in some people a few weeks. Till then the patient has to continue with his symptomatic medication.

How long does a patient have to take immunotherapy? How long does it’s effect last after stopping of immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy has to be taken for atleast 3-5 years. it’s effect will last then for 10-12 years. However, if you feel better and stop it after a few months, your symptoms will be back within the year. Therefore, completion of the course is necessary.

Immunotherapy doses and schedules vary. They are customised as per patient. They can be given twice a week or even daily.

NEXT: POLLEN ALLERGIES

What causes allergies?

Hi. Welcome back.

In the previous blog we had a brief overview of what is the meaning of allergy. Now I’d like to discuss about what can cause allergies in our body.

As discussed previously, once a foreign substance enters the body, it causes allergic reaction on exposure the second time.

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Allergens can enter the body by

Inhalation

Ingestion

contact with the skin, and eyes.

Inhalation: There are minute particles of allergy causing substances in the air. We breathe in these particles. This is known as inhalation, and these allergens are known as inhalants.                                 

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Examples of inhalant allergens are pollen, dust mites, saw dust, spider dust, paper dust, house dust, sheep’s wool, rice, wheat dust, etc, fur and feathers of animals and birds, fungal spores in the air.

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You can get sneezing, itching, running nose, and in long term stuffiness of the nose, within half an hour of inhaling these things.

Ingestion: various foods can cause allergy after eating. The most common are milk and milk products, wheat, soyabean, egg, seafood, tree-nuts and peanuts..

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You can get diarrhea, stomach upset, rashes, urticaria and angioedema, swelling of the lips, eyelid and face, breathing difficulty after ingestion of these foods. In severe allergies even inhaling food can cause a reaction known as anaphylactic shock. In this reaction your blood pressure goes down, face, tongue and airways swell up, causing choking and making breathing difficult. this is life threatening and has to be treated immediately with adrenaline injections below the skin.

Severe allergies to peanuts, seafood, etc are seen in the western world, so that patients have to carry along with them epi-pen or readily injectable adrenaline.

Food allergies are common in children, and atopic dermatitis and rashes. They eventually grow out of it. But allergies to certain foods like milk and wheat can persist through life.

Drug allergies: Sometimes certain medication may not agree with you. this can cause severe reactions like shock, skin eruptions, etc.

What is the difference between intolerance and allergy?

Allergic reactions are when your body is highly sensitive to a substance introduced

Some fruits,cheese, etc contain a histamine like substance which can trigger an allergy type of response.

Sometimes, if you are allergic to pollen, you can get local irritation in the mouth after eating certain fruit.This is called the ‘oral allergy syndrome.’

In intolerance you cannot process the particular substance, i.e. in lactose intolerance, the enzyme which digests lactose at the gut lining is deficient. In gluten intolerance the same mechanism comes to play.

Hyperactivity can occur in children due to excess caffiene, energy drinks.

Chronic allergic reactions can lead to long term changes in the digestive system such as eosinophilic oesophagitis leading to thickening and narrowing of the gut lining.

Contact: 

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If certain substances touch your skin, you can get rashes, swelling and itching, with patches. These could be food, pollen, dust, dust mites, fungi and a variety of allergens.

Certain chemicals, cosmetics, nickel from cheap jewellery , topical ointment, eye and ear drops can cause contact irritation too.

Insect bites and stings:  Honeybees, wasps, ants, mosquito, can cause a severe allergic reaction. In some cases even fatal

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Thus, we can state that allergies are troublesome as they affect the quality of living and work. In some cases allergies can be fatal too.

NEXT: Each allergen will be dealt with one by one in detail.